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Research Studies on Media Ownership - 7/31/07

The research studies on media ownership listed below are intended to inform the Commission’s comprehensive review of its broadcast ownership policies. The Commission intends to use the evidence collected in these studies, as well as the comments, to guide and support its decisions in the ownership proceeding.


Study 1: How People Get News and Information

This study surveys consumers about their use of media. It identifies consumers’ primary, secondary, and tertiary sources of news and information and the frequency with which consumers access these sources.

Author: Nielsen Media Research, Inc.

  • Study 1

  • Related Data (386 KB) *UPDATED 9/19/2007: Uploaded data set in CSV and SAS-readable formats.

NOTE: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the Federal Communications Commission.


Study 2: Ownership Structure and Robustness of Media

This study describes the ownership structure and robustness of current media, including broadcast television, cable television, satellite television, broadcast radio, satellite radio, newspapers, and the Internet. The information gathered concerning the current media marketplace is compared to the state of the media marketplace when the Commission last reviewed its ownership rules in the years 2002-2003.

Authors: Kiran Duwadi, Scott Roberts, and Andrew Wise, FCC; C. Anthony Bush, FCC (Technical Appendix)

  • Study 2 *REVISED 9/5/2007: corrected a data source citation (references to “Media Databridge’s Centris” corrected to “CentrisBRIDGE”).

  • Related Data (8.6 MB) *UPDATED 9/5/2007: supplementary information relating to female ownership of broadcast radio and television stations added.

NOTE: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the Federal Communications Commission.


Study 3: Television Station Ownership Structure and the Quantity and Quality of TV Programming

This study analyzes the effect of ownership structure and robustness (as described in Study 2) on various measures of the quantity and the quality of different types of TV programming, including local news and public affairs, minority programming, children’s programming, family programming, religious programming, and violent and indecent content.

Author: Gregory S. Crawford, Department of Economics, University of Arizona

  • Study 3

  • UPDATE 9/10/2007: Study 3 data is now available for review at FCC headquarters pursuant to the Protective Order released 9/5/2007.

NOTE: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the Federal Communications Commission.


Study 4: News Operations

This study, which is divided into four sections, collects data on the size and scope of the news operations of radio and television stations and newspapers. It also analyzes the relationship between the nature of the news operations and market characteristics, including ownership structure and robustness.

Authors: Daniel Shiman, FCC (Section I); Kenneth Lynch, FCC (Section II); Craig Stroup, FCC (Section III); Pedro Almoguera, FCC (Section IV)

NOTE: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the Federal Communications Commission.


Study 5: Station Ownership and Programming in Radio

This study uses station-level data to examine how ownership structure affects the programming and audience of radio stations.

Author: Tasneem Chipty, CRA International, Inc.

NOTE: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the Federal Communications Commission.


Study 6: The Effects of Cross-Ownership on the Local Content and Political Slant of Local Television News

This study examines the effect of newspaper cross-ownership on television news coverage using matched pairs of cross-owned and non-cross-owned television stations.

Author: Jeffrey Milyo, Center for Applied Economics, University of Kansas, School of Business; Department of Economics and Truman School of Public Affairs, University of Missouri

  • Study 6 *UPDATED 9/17/2007: corrected copy of the study report.

  • Related Data (179 KB) *UPDATED 9/14/2007: updated replication dataset spreadsheet and added STATA logs.

NOTE: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the Federal Communications Commission.


Study 7: Minority and Female Ownership in Media Enterprises

This study examines levels of minority ownership of media companies and barriers to entry.

Authors: Arie Beresteanu and Paul B. Ellickson, Duke University

NOTE: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the Federal Communications Commission.


Study 8: The Impact of the FCC’s TV Duopoly Rule Relaxation on Minority and Women Owned Broadcast Stations 1999-2006

This study examines levels of minority ownership of media companies and barriers to entry.

Author: Allen S. Hammond, IV, Santa Clara University (The Commission contracted with Allen Hammond, Barbara O’Connor, and Tracy Westen to undertake this study.)

NOTE: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the Federal Communications Commission.


Study 9: Vertical Integration and the Market for Broadcast and Cable Television Programming

This study examines levels of vertical integration in the media industry.

Author: Austan Goolsbee, University of Chicago, Graduate School of Business; American Bar Foundation; and National Bureau of Economic Research

  • Study 9 *REVISED 9/5/2007: Table 1, column 2 (ABC) ratings for the 2000-2001 season corrected to 45.2; Table 11, “BBC America” corrected to 98.8% in column 1 and 89.3% in column 2. (Note that corrections do not affect results in regressions nor any other data in the version previously released.)

  • Related Data (3 KB) *UPDATED 9/5/2007: modified file names of public data set files.

NOTE: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the Federal Communications Commission.


Study 10: Review of the Radio Industry, 2007

This study updates a study done during our last review of the media ownership rules. That study was titled “Radio Industry Review 2002: Trends in Ownership, Format, and Finance.”

Author: George Williams, FCC

  • Study 10

  • Related Data (105 KB)

  • UPDATE 9/10/2007: Additional data for Study 10 that was previously unavailable due to technical difficulties is now available for review at FCC headquarters pursuant to the Protective Order released 9/5/2007.

NOTE: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the Federal Communications Commission.




last reviewed/updated on November 15, 2008  


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