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X0METHODS FOR PREDICTING INTERFERENCE FROM RESPONSE STATION
TRANSMITTERS AND TO RESPONSE STATION HUBS AND FOR SUPPLYING
DATA ON RESPONSE STATION SYSTEMS.
Y0
xThis document sets out the methodology to be used in carrying out three requirements with
xrespect to response stations used as part of twoway cellularized MDS and ITFS systems. It
xXdetails the methods for conducting interference studies from response stations to other systems;
x\it details the methods for calculating interference protection for response station hubs; and it
xdefines a file format to be used in submitting data in response station hub applications. It also
describes the propagation analysis techniques to be used in these studies.
p
<83#|\ P6G;-P#Four Major Steps for Response Station Interference Analysis#Xj\ P6G;=>XP#
x83In carrying out the studies of interference from response station transmitters, the aggregate power
xof the interfering signals to be expected from the response station transmitters shall be determined
xlusing a process comprising four major steps, as described below. First, a grid of points shall be
xdefined that is statistically representative of the distribution of transmitters to be expected within
xthe response service area, and the elevations to be associated with each of them shall be
xdetermined. Second, any regions and any classes of response stations to be used shall be defined.
xThird, the appropriate transmitter configuration to be used in each interference study shall be
x(determined. Fourth, the equivalent power of each of the representative transmitters shall be
xpdetermined and used in the various required interference studies. The parameters used in the
studies shall be provided in a prescribed electronic form as described later in this document.
eD<PfDefining Grid of Points for Analysis
"
e0
xH"fSince it is impossible to know a priori where response stations will be located, a grid of points
x<is used to represent statistically, in a relatively small number of locations, the potentially much
xlarger number of response stations that are likely to be installed in the areas surrounding each
xof the points. Once defined, the same grid of points shall be used by all parties conducting
interference analyses involving the subject response station system.
x$Defining the representative grid of points to use in all the interference studies required in Rule
xHSections 21.909 and 74.939 begins by geographically defining the response service area (RSA)
xof the response station hub (RSH). This may be done using either a list of coordinates or a
xradius from the response station hub location. When coordinates are used, straight lines shall
x,interconnect one location with the next in the order given in the list, and the last location
xdescribed shall be connected to the first location by a straight line. When a radius from the
xresponse station hub location is used, the value shall be expressed in miles, with any fractional
xpart expressed as a decimal value to three places. The boundaries described are administrative
and serve to circumscribe the area in which response station transmitters may be located."G#0*0*0*""
xThe characteristics of any sectors in the RSH receiving antenna also must be described in two
x$ways: geographically, so as to limit the locations from which response stations will transmit to
x|each sector, and electrically, by providing data on the electrical field response of the antenna
x pattern in each sector. Sectors may overlap one another geographically. The geographic
xXboundaries of a sector shall be defined using either a list of coordinates or a list of bearings.
x,Electrical field response data shall be relative to the direction of maximum response of the sector
xantenna and shall be provided every one (1) degree completely around the antenna. Both azimuth
x8and elevation field patterns shall be supplied for each polarization to be used with a given
xantenna type. The geographic orientation of each sector to the nearest degree and the polarization
xin each sector also shall be specified. When response stations share channels or subchannels by
x4transmitting simultaneously on them, the maximum number of response stations that will be
permitted to transmit simultaneously within each sector must be specified.
xThe RSA may be subdivided into regions to allow different characteristics to be used for
xresponse stations in different portions of the RSA. (For details on regions and their use, see the
x(section below on Defining Regions and Classes for Analysis.) Any regions to be used when
xanalyzing interference must also be described in a manner similar to that used to describe the
xRSA itself. Analysis of the regions involves use of one or more classes of response station
xcharacteristics. For each such class, a combination must be specified of the maximum antenna
x@height, the maximum equivalent isotropic radiated power (EIRP), and the worst case antenna
xpattern that will be used in practice in installations of response stations associated with that class
xdwithin the respective regions. (For details on classes and their use, see the section below on
xLDefining Regions and Classes for Analysis.) When response stations share channels or sub
xdchannels by transmitting simultaneously on them, the maximum number of response stations
xassociated with each class that will be permitted to transmit simultaneously within each region
and each sector must be specified.
xHTo define the grid of points, a line is first established surrounding the RSA, following the shape
x\of the RSA boundary, mile outside the RSA, and never more than mile from the RSA
xboundary at any point. This is termed the analysis line and will be used in determining that an
xtadequate number of grid points representing transmitters is being used in the interference
xlanalyses. A starting point is defined on the analysis line due north (true) of the response station
xhub. A series of analysis points is then spaced along the analysis line with the starting point
xbeing one of those points. The analysis points must occur with a spacing no greater than every
xt mile along the analysis line or every 5degrees (as seen from the response station hub),
x0whichever yields the largest number of analysis points. When an RSA has a noncircular shape,
xXthe choice of distance along the analysis line or angle from the response station hub must be
xmade for each portion of the line so as to maximize the number of analysis points in that portion.
x(The analysis points are to be described by their geographic coordinates. (The results of this
xmethod are that, for a circular RSA, a minimum of 72 analysis points will be used, and that, for
xportions of the analysis line of any RSA more than 5.73 miles from the response station hub, the
distance method will be used.)
xNext, the grid of points is defined within the RSA to statistically represent the response stations.
xThe grid uses uniform, square spacing of the points, as measured in integer seconds of latitude
xand longitude, with the first square surrounding the RSH and with its points equidistant from it. "(0*0*0*("
xThe lines connecting the points on one side of any grid square point true north, east, south, or
xwest. The grid is defined so as to include all points within or on the boundary of the RSA, with
x0the exceptions noted below. The result is that the grid can be defined by only two values " the
x$coordinates of the hub and the separation between adjacent grid points in seconds " combined
with the description of the RSA boundary.
xAny points falling at locations at which it would be physically impossible to install a response
x4station (such as in the middle of a lake, but not the middle of a forest) are removed from the
grid. The points of the grid so removed are to be described by their geographic coordinates.
xThe grid of points is then divided into two groups. The division is to be done using a
xcheckerboard pattern so that alternating points along the eastwest and northsouth axes belong
to opposite groups and points along any diagonal line belong to the same group.
xThe combination of the grid of points within the RSA and the points on the analysis line is next
xused to determine that the number of grid points is truly representative of a uniform distribution
xof response station transmitters within the RSA. This is done by conducting a power flux density
xanalysis from each grid point within the RSA to each point on the analysis line. For this
xhanalysis, a single response station should be assumed to be located at each grid point, that
xresponse station having the combined worst case antenna pattern without regard to polarization
xof all response station classes assigned to that grid point and the maximum EIRP of any response
xstation class assigned to that grid point. (For details on the method for determining the combined
xworst case antenna pattern, see the section below on Defining Regions and Classes for Analysis.)
The response station antennas all should be oriented toward the response station hub.
xThe analysis of grid point adequacy should be done using free space path loss over flat earth only
xxand should not include the effects of terrain in the calculation of received signal levels. At each
xDpoint on the analysis line, the power flux density from all grid points in each group of the
xcheckerboard pattern should be aggregated. This is done by converting power received from each
ee0
x0assumed transmitter from dBW/m2 to W/m2, summing the power in W/m2 from all transmitters
eN0in each group, and then converting the sum back to dBW/m2.
xpAfter the aggregated power flux density from each of the two groups has been calculated, the
xLreceived power flux densities from the two groups are compared at each of the points on the
xTanalysis line. The power flux densities from the two groups must be within 3dB of one another
xpat each of the points on the analysis line. In addition, there must be no closer spacing of grid
xPpoints that allows a difference of greater than 3dB between the groups. If the power flux
xdensities of both groups are within 3 dB at every analysis point, a sufficient number of grid
x`points is included for use in further analyses. If they are not within 3 dB at every analysis point,
x$a larger number of grid points (i.e., closer spacing of grid points) must be used so that the 3dB
criterion is met.
xIn cases in which sectorized response station hubs are used, a further test is required to assure
xthat an adequate number of grid points is used. In addition to meeting the requirements of the
xpreceding paragraph, each sector must contain a number of grid points equal to or greater than
x<the distance from the hub to the furthest point in the sector, expressed in miles, divided by two,"(0*0*0*\("
xTwith a minimum of five grid points per sector. Should an insufficient number of grid points fall
x<within any sector after meeting the 3 dB criterion, the point spacing for the entire RSA must be
decreased until this additional requirement is satisfied.
x$Once the geographic locations of the grid points are determined, the elevations to be attributed
xHto each must be decided. This is done by creating a geographic square uniformly spaced around
xTeach grid point having a width and a height equal to the spacing between grid points and oriented
xin the same directions as the lines between grid points used to lay out the grid structure. Each
xsuch square is then examined with respect to all of the data points of the U.S. Geological Survey
x(USGS) 3second database falling within the square to find the elevation of the highest such data
xlpoint, expressed in feet. That elevation is ascribed to the associated grid point and shall be used
xfor the elevation of that grid point in all further and future analyses of the response station
system.
e<PmHeading 2#Xj\ P6G;=>XP#dDefining Regions and Classes for Analysis 8wHeading 2
"
e0
x "#XP7
PT6Q=>XP#dTo provide flexibility in system design, regions may optionally be created within response service
x<areas. Regions may be of arbitrary size, shape, and location. The territory within a region must
xbe contiguous. Regions within a single RSA may not overlap one another. Within regions,
xxresponse stations are apt to be randomly distributed and for analysis purposes are to be assumed
xto be uniformly distributed. Regions are to be defined by their boundaries in the same manner
xas are response service areas. (For details on describing boundaries, see the section above on
Defining Grid of Points for Analysis.)
xWithin each region, at least one class of response station with defined characteristics must be
xspecified to match the interference predicted to be caused with the types of installations to be
xmade. The classes are to be used in interference analyses and to provide limitations on the
xinstallations that may be made in the related region. The characteristics of each such class of
xHresponse stations shall include the maximum height above ground level (AGL) for antennas, the
x(maximum equivalent isotropic radiated power (EIRP), and the combined worstcase antenna
xradiation pattern ! for each polarization when both are used ! for all response stations of that
xclass to be installed. When response stations share a channel by transmitting simultaneously (see
xsection below on Determining Transmitter Configuration), for each class of response stations
xwithin each region, the maximum number of such response stations that may transmit
simultaneously on any channel or subchannel shall be specified.
xTThe combined worstcase antenna azimuth radiation pattern is required to be specified
xcollectively for all of the classes of response stations located at each grid point (in the procedure
xabove, in the section on Defining Grid of Points for Analysis, for confirming that the required
xnumber of grid points is specified) and individually for each of the classes defined for each
xregion of the RSA. In the case of the collective pattern used to determine adequacy of the
xnumber of grid points, if both polarizations are used in the system, the horizontally and
xverticallypolarized azimuth patterns of each antenna should be treated as deriving from separate
xantennas and should be combined with one another and with the patterns from all the other
xantennas at that grid point. In the cases of the individual patterns for each class used for
x8interference analyses, if both polarizations are used in the system, the horizontally and vertically
xlpolarized combined worstcase azimuth patterns should be determined separately for all classes"(0*0*0*("
xdefined. Similarly, the crosspolarized worstcase patterns should be determined for each
polarization.
xThese combined worstcase patterns are derived by setting the maximum forward signal power
xof all antenna types to be used within the class or classes to the same value and then using the
xhighest level of radiation in each direction from any of the antennas as the value in that direction
xxfor the combined antenna pattern. The same method is used to determine both plane and cross
xpolarized patterns, which are used separately in interference analyses. The combined worstcase
xplane and crosspolarized patterns for each class will be used in all of the interference studies
xand are not to be exceeded in actual installations of response stations within a class to which the
pattern applies.
er
<PmHeading 2#Xj\ P6G;=>XP#dDetermining System Configuration mJwHeading 2
"
e0
x"#XP7
PT6Q=>XP#dSeveral factors in the configuration of a system determine whether or not transmitters located at
xspecific grid points could cause interference to particular neighboring systems. In order to
x4simplify the study of interference to those neighbors, the system configuration is taken into
xaccount so as to reduce the number of calculations required by eliminating the study of
x0interference from specific grid points when possible. The main factor that determines whether
to eliminate certain grid points from consideration is terrain blockage.
xWhen grid points are completely blocked from lineofsight to any part of a neighboring system,
xpthey can be eliminated from the aggregation of power used in calculating interference to that
xsystem. To determine whether to eliminate a grid point for this reason, a shadow study can be
xconducted from each grid point in the direction of the neighboring system. Separate studies can
x4be conducted for classes of response stations that have different maximum elevations above
xlground. If there is no area within the protected service area or at any of the registered receiving
xlocations of the neighboring system to which a particular class of station at a grid point has line
x ofsight, it can be eliminated from the calculations that determine the power of interfering signals
x$at the neighbors location. Alternatively, lack of lineofsight can be evaluated from each class
xat each grid point to each location analyzed within the neighboring system (see section below on
xDCalculating Aggregated Power from Transmitters), and grid points can be eliminated on a
locationbylocation basis, if that process is more easily implemented.
xThere are two ways in which a large number of response stations can share channels: They can
xtake turns using the channels so that only one transmitter will be turned on at any particular
xinstant on each channel or subchannel being received by a separate receiver in the system, or
xthey can transmit at the same time and use special filtering techniques at the receiver to separate
xthe signals they are sending simultaneously to that receiver. These two cases will result in
xdifferent levels of power being radiated into neighboring systems, and therefore they must be
analyzed slightly differently.
xlIn the case of response stations that take turns using a channel or subchannel, the grid point and
x4class of station that produces the worst case of interference to each analyzed location in the
xneighboring system must be determined for each group of response stations that share a channel
xT(e.g., within a response station hub receiving antenna sector). In this case, the interfering signal
x`source can be treated as a single transmitter occupying the full bandwidth of the channel or sub
xchannels used from that location and having a power level equal to the aggregate of the power")0*0*0*8("
transmitted on all of the subchannels, if subchannels are used.
xIn the case of response stations that simultaneously share a channel or subchannel, the grid point
xxand class of station that produces the worst case of interference to each analyzed location in the
xneighboring system must be determined for each group of response stations that share a channel
xT(e.g., within a response station hub receiving antenna sector). In this case, the interfering signal
xsource can be treated as a single grid point at which are located all of the simultaneously
xoperating transmitters, occupying the full bandwidth of the channel or subchannels used from
xthat location, and having a power level equal to the aggregate of the power transmitted by all of
xthe response stations operating simultaneously on all of the subchannels, if subchannels are
used.
x`In cases of sharedchannel operation in which the number of simultaneously operating response
xstations of a class is limited by a region that crosses sector boundaries, the number of such
xresponse stations considered within some sectors may be limited so that the total included in the
xanalysis in all sectors does not exceed the total permitted for the region. The objective in
xanalyzing these cases is to find the worst case situation with regard to the maximum number of
xsimultaneously operating transmitters, assigning them collectively to the locations at which they
xcause the most interference to each location analyzed within neighboring systems, while
xprespecting the limits imposed on the number of such transmitters by sector and by region. A
xXstatement describing in detail the process or algorithm followed in selecting the number and
x<classes of response stations analyzed at each grid point shall be appended to the application and
xdistributed as a standard ASCII text file along with the data file described below in the section
on the File Format.
xTAn example of the case just described of sharedchannel operation with the number of
x4simultaneously operating transmitters limited both by region and by sector is one in which a
xregion comprises an annular ring that stretches from half the radius to the full radius of a circular
xRSA. The region has a limit of 200 simultaneously operating transmitters of a particular class,
xTand each of 20 sectors is limited to 20 simultaneously operating transmitters. If the worst case
xinterference from each sector were caused by the subject class and all were used in analyzing
xHinterference to a neighboring system, the result would be the use of 400 such response stations
x(20 x 20) in the analysis, while the region is limited to 200. Consequently, the 10 regions (10
xx 20 meets the limit of 200) causing the most interference to the neighbor would be selected,
xand, in the other 10 sectors, the classes of station causing the second largest amount of
xinterference to the neighbor would be selected for use in the analysis. In choosing the secondary
xinterfering response station classes, the same type of limitations would have to be observed. The
xprocess for making these selections based on the appropriate limitations would have to be
followed for each analyzed point in the neighboring system.
et#<PmHeading 2#Xj\ P6G;=>XP#dCalculating Aggregated Power from Transmitters hwHeading 2
"
e$0
x"#XP7
PT6Q=>XP#dThe final major step in calculating interference from response station transmitters is the
xcalculation of the equivalent isotropic radiated power (EIRP) to be attributed to each of the
x0selected grid points in the various interference studies so as to be representative of the number
x<of response stations that are expected to be in operation simultaneously within the RSA. When
xanalyzing systems in which the response stations take turns using a channel or subchannels, this"e(0*0*0*'"
xmeans, for each location analyzed in the system to be protected, selecting the grid point and class
xof station within each sector that radiates the strongest signal to that location and aggregating the
xpower from all such selected grid points and classes, using the maximum EIRP (for all sub
xchannels taken together), the maximum antenna height, and the worst case antenna pattern for
x`a single station of that class at each selected grid point. For systems in which response stations
x<simultaneously share the channel or subchannels to each receiver at each hub, substantially the
xsame analysis is performed. The difference is that the maximum number of simultaneously
xloperating response stations within each sector is placed at each selected grid point, in turn. The
xmaximum EIRP (for all subchannels taken together) for each regional class at each grid point
xor additional point, expressed in dBW, is converted to Watts. The power is then multiplied by
xthe number of simultaneously operating transmitters in the regional class assigned to that grid
xTpoint or additional point, and the resulting power in Watts is converted back to dBW. When the
xnumber of simultaneously operating transmitters within a sector in the class and at the grid point
xdthat causes the most signal to be propagated to a location in the neighboring system does not
xequal the number of simultaneously operating transmitters permitted in that sector, the grid point
xand class of station that cause the next largest amount of signal to be so propagated shall be used
xto account for the remaining number of simultaneously operating transmitters permitted in the
xXsector, and so on as necessary. At each location analyzed within the neighboring system, the
xpower received from the selected grid points within each sector is aggregated through conversion
xfrom dBW to Watts, addition of power levels, and conversion back to dBW. In each case, the
xvalues so calculated are the aggregated powers of all the simultaneously operating response
xstation transmitters sharing the same channel(s) or subchannel(s), from all sectors, for use as the
xDundesired signal levels in interference analyses .In a system using both polarizations, the
xresponse stations represented by each grid point are to be assumed to use the polarization of the
x@response station hub antenna sector in which they are located. The appropriate horizontal or
xvertical combined worstcase antenna pattern is to be used in interference studies depending upon
x@the polarization of the sector in which each grid point is located. In a system using only one
x`polarization, the effect of antenna sectors can be ignored and the choice between horizontal and
vertical polarization patterns made identically for all grid points.
xFinally, the aggregate power of each active regional class at each active grid point is used in
xconducting the required interference studies described in the relevant Rules. For example, to
e0
xdetermine that the -73dBW/m2 limitation is met, a field strength contour is calculated by first
xcalculating a matrix of field strengths from each regional class at each grid point in the RSA into
xthe region of the PSA or other boundary to be protected using the terrainbased propagation
xTanalysis tool specified below (i.e., free space path loss plus reflection and multiple diffractions
x" see section below on Propagation Analysis Tool). The matrix represents an array of locations
xon a square grid separated by a short distance (no more than 1 mile). Once the protected area
xmatrix is calculated from signals originating at each regional class at each grid point or additional
e^#0
xpoint, the matrices are summed by first converting from dBW/m2 to W/m2, adding the field
xstrength values from all regional classes at all grid points at each matrix point, and converting
e0%0
x$from W/m2 back to dBW/m2. The summed matrix is then used to route a protection contour by
x$interpolating between matrix points. The contour so determined should not cross the boundary
xunder consideration. When response stations partially or completely share channels, subchannels
x0or superchannels with booster and/or primary stations within the same system, the interference
xcontributions of these stations must be added to those of the response stations in order to"(0*0*0*h("
xddetermine the overall interference impact of the system and its conformance with applicable
interference protection criteria.
x@Similar methods should be used in conducting the other interference studies required in this
xsection. These include the desiredtoundesired (D/U) signal ratio studies for cochannel and
xadjacent channel interference. In all of these studies, the analysis should use the aggregate power
xof each regional class at each grid point or additional point, the worst case plane or cross
xpolarized antenna pattern, as appropriate, for each regional class, with the antennas at each grid
xpoint aimed toward the response station hub, and the maximum antenna height above ground
specified for each regional class at each grid point or additional point.
p <#|\ P6G;-P#Protection to Response Station Hubs#Xj\ P6G;=>XP#
xProtection to response station hubs is required from two types of neighboring systems: those
xapplied for or licensed prior to the licensing of the subject response station hub and those applied
xfor or licensed subsequent to the licensing of the subject response station hub. In cases in which
x0the neighboring system was licensed first, the protection to be provided to the response station
xhub after any modifications of the neighboring system shall be no less than that provided prior
x$to the modifications. In cases in which the neighboring system is licensed later, the protection
xHto be provided to the response station hub after construction of the neighboring system shall be
xlsuch as not to degrade the noise floor of hub receivers by more that 1 dB for cochannel signals
xand 45 dB for adjacent channel signals. The methods to be used to determine the amount of
protection provided or the amount of degradation follow.
xFor purposes of interference protection calculations, an applicant for a response station hub shall
xspecify the geographic coordinates of the hub location and, for each sector, (1) the height of the
xantenna above ground (AGL) and above mean sea level (AMSL), (2) the hub receiving antenna
xpattern (both in azimuth and elevation, both co and crosspolarized in the main vertical lobe),
xp(3) the hub receiving antenna gain in the main lobe (in dBi), (4) the azimuth of the main lobe,
(5) any mechanical tilt to be utilitized, and (6) the polarization of the receiving antenna.
xThe level of interference caused to a response station hub by either an existing or a new MDS
xor ITFS station shall be independently determined for each sector. In making such a
xpdetermination, the power from all sources (main, booster, and response stations) related to a
xparticular primary license of an individual licensee shall be aggregated to yield an effective
xpower flux density of the interfering signal(s). The resulting summation can then be used for
xxcomparisons between old and new values when existing stations are modified or for comparison
against the specified receiver degradation threshold for new stations that are proposed.
xIn calculating the effective power flux density value, the effective isotropic radiated power
x((EIRP) radiated in the direction of the response station hub from each main, booster, and/or
xresponse station (as represented by the selected grid points described earlier in the section Four
xMajor Steps for Response Station Interference Analysis) of the neighboring system shall first be
xTdetermined. The power arriving at the response station hub shall be analyzed using the
x`propagation analysis tool described in the following section on that subject. The aggregation of
x`power from all related sources shall take account of the angular displacement of each particular
xsource from the peak of the main lobe of the receiving antenna and the relative polarization of"9)0*0*0*("
each interfering signal source.
To determine the effective power flux density, the following formula shall be used:
K!0
ddddddd0 dd? NPFD sub EFF = 10log sub 10 ``stack {n#sum#1} 10 sup {{ISi+G sub REL i}over 10}XR PE3QXPXR PE3QXPXR PE3QXP<PFDEFF5n_ISic_Gdd5RELz _i<_
<10<log10F1<10L10IoK$(#(#(#(#!!|$
"!|**22L~: : (1)
$!|
e&
`8(#(#&
(#(#Where:` ` PFDEFF=Effective Power Flux Density (dBW/m2)
e
0` ` n=Number of Interfering Signal Sources (units)
e0` ` ISi=Interfering Signal Power Flux Density of ith Source (dBW/m2)
e`` ` GRELi = Relative Gain of Hub Sector in Direction of ith Source (dB)
e
0` ` (includes antenna discrimination & polarization effects)
xFor neighboring systems licensed first, it is necessary to ascertain that the value of the effective
x power flux density after a modification, as predicted for each response station hub antenna sector,
xdoes not exceed the value predicted for the same sector prior to the modification. For new
xneighboring systems, an additional step is required to ascertain that the predicted value of the
xeffective power flux density does not exceed the allowed threshold values for both cochannel
and adjacent channel signals.
xTo calculate the relationship of the effective power flux density to the threshold values for co
xchannel and adjacent channel signals, the level of the noise floor of the hub receiver first must
be figured. It is given by the formula:
A0
ddddddddNdd?h /,jP sub THERMAL = 10 log ``LEFT [` k ` ` sup 5 `/ sub 9 ` (T-32) + 273 ` ` ` BW RIGHT ] XR PE3QXPXR PE3QXPXR PE3QXPvP6THERMALvkwvTvBWvvi vcv10+vlogJ5v/694v(^v32& v) v273Wt{v9v,ߩ$(#(#(#(#!AL$
"ALrr&""Xzz (2)
(#(#Y(#(#
e
`Where:` ` PTHERMAL= Noise Power from Thermal Sources (dBW)
e0` ` k= Boltzmanns Constant (1.380662 x 10é23)
e0` ` T= Noise Temperature (degrees Fahrenheit)
e 0` ` BW= Bandwidth (Hz)
xLWith a typical noise temperature of 63 deg. F and a bandwidth of 6 MHz, Equation 2 yields a
x(thermal noise power of 136.2 dBW. The equivalent total power flux density of the thermal
noise power plus the effective power flux density of the interfering signal(s) is given by:
_a0:#*dddddddd
r[dd? *PFD sub \EQUIV` = ` 10log sub 10
`LEFT (`10 sup {{ PFD sub EFF} over 10} +
10 sup {{P sub THERMAL - L sub c + NF + G sub ANT}over 10}`RIGHT )XR PE3QXPXR PE3QXPXR PE3QXPvPFD6EQUIVsPFDddzoEFF
Pdd
oTHERMAL
LddY
oc
NFGdd4oANTCvB v
v10vlog610v1010 v10
105:h5Gi:oGpBcL
L_$(#(#%MM(#(#!aLM$
"aLM@UUr (3)
$aLM') 0*0*0*l*|
! L A hL*Mi.
a *Ԍ
e`8MM(#(#(#(#ԙWhere:` ` PFDEQUIV = Equivalent Total Power Flux Density (dBW / m2 )
e`` ` LC = Cable Losses (dB)
e0` ` NF = Noise Figure of First Amplifier (dB)
e`` ` GANT = Antenna Gain (dBi)
x<Compliance with the limits for cochannel and adjacent channel interference from new stations
xto response station hubs can be determined by first calculating the equivalent total power flux
x8density with the effective power flux density of the interference set to zero and then recomputing
x<with the true effective power flux density. The two values found should not differ by more than
1dB for cochannel interference nor by more than 45dB for adjacent channel interference.
p <Heading 1#|\ P6G;-P# = rPropagation Model Heading 1
"
e0
x"#XP7
PT6Q=>XP#rWhen analyzing interference from response stations to other systems and from other systems to
xresponse station hubs, a propagation model shall be used that takes into account the effects of
xterrain and certain other factors. The model is derived from basic calculations described in NTIS
e0
xTechnical Note 101.=X
nZ$#X\ P6G;
P#э Transmission Loss Prediction for Tropospheric Communication Circuits, Technical Note 101, NTIS
Access Number AD 687820, National Technical Information Service, US Department of Commerce, Springfield,
VA.= It is intended as a tool for analysis of wide area coverage of microwave
xtransmissions, and it is available built into commercial propagation analysis software packages
e^0that are widely used by the MDS/ITFS industry for coverage and interference prediction.^
nZ$
x#X\ P6G;
P#э An example of such a software implementation is the Free Space + RMD) method included in some products
of EDX Engineering, Inc.
xIn the model described, two loss terms are computed " the free space path loss based solely on
xdistance and the excess path loss (XPL) that derives from terrain obstacles and other elements
xin the environment. Among the inputs required for some implementations of the model are
xlocation and time variability factors. Other factors for such items as clutter and foliage losses
x`can be considered by some software versions, but they will not be used in analyzing the systems
considered herein.
xThe excess path loss portion of the calculation considers several conditions that impact signal
xpropagation. These include whether the path is line of sight for the direct ray, whether there
xis 0.6 first Fresnel zone clearance, or whether the path is totally obstructed. When the path is
xlunobstructed, a single ground reflection is added to the direct ray to determine path loss. When
xthe first Fresnel zone is partially obstructed, an additional loss up to 6 dB is included by the
xmodel. When the path is totally obstructed, the path loss is calculated using the EpsteinPeterson
e0
xmethodFootnote Ref#A\ PP##|Footnote Ref##XP7
PT6Q=>XP#V@
Z%0
x`Ѝ#X\ P6G;
P# J. Epstein and D.W. Peterson. An experimental study of wave propagation at 850 Mc., Proc. IRE, vol.41,
nZ&$no. 5, pp. 595611, May, 1953.#
XN\ P?XP#V that considers the diffraction losses over successive terrain obstacles. In this case, each
x,obstacle is treated separately, with the preceding obstacle (or the transmitter, in the first instance)
xconsidered to be the transmitter and the succeeding obstacle (or the receiver, in the last instance)
considered to be the receiver."~
0*0*0*l!"Ԍ
x\Some software implementations of the methods described herein may provide for setting
xparameters for both location and time variability in terms of the percentage of the locations or
xof the time that signals meet or exceed studied levels. For purposes of analyzing the interference
xfrom response stations and to response station hubs, both the location and the time variability
xdfactors shall be set to 50 percent in all cases. When available as a parameter, the confidence
level shall be set to 50percent.
xIn conducting analyses of interference from response stations, the minimum acceptable signal
xthreshold shall be set to the noise floor for the bandwidth involved, as calculated per Equation
x2 above. Thus for a 6 MHz channel, the minimum signal level considered would be 136.2 dBW
xor 106.2 dBm. As a result of this setting, when the desired signal falls below this level, the D/U
xxratio from any interfering signal source will be ignored. These studies shall be conducted based
x$exclusively upon the levels of the desired and undesired signals without the addition of thermal
noise.
ee
<PmHeading 2#Xj\ P6G;=>XP#dPropagation Model Outline wHeading 2
"
e0
x0"#XP7
PT6Q=>XP#dFor the purposes of these Rules, the propagation model has three basic elements that affect the
predicted field strength at the receiver:
1) LineofSight (LOS) mode, using basic tworay theory with constraints
2) Nonlineofsight (NLOS) mode, using multiple wedge diffraction
3) Partial first Fresnel zone obstruction losses applicable to either mode
xThe LOS and NLOS modes are mutually exclusive " a given path between a transmitter and
xa receiver is either LOS or not. The fundamental decision as to whether a path is LOS is based
x$on the path geometry. That decision is described in the next subsection, which also defines the
LOS mode for the model.
e?<PmHeading 2#Xj\ P6G;=>XP#dLineofSight (LOS) Mode wHeading 2
"
e0
x"#XP7
PT6Q=>XP#dThe determination of whether a path between a transmitter and a receiver is LOS is made by
x comparing the depression angle of the path between the transmitter and receiver with the
xdepression angle to each terrain elevation point along the path. The depression angle from
transmitter to receiver is computed using an equation of the form:
1dddddddd(1)a1dddddddd _i
3%ddddddddldd)>8i
3XMital sub {t-r} = {h sub r - h sub t}over d sub r - {d sub r over {2 a} }XP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPtrh9trhMttSvd6r:dtrva4mDD$v2_$(#(#||(#(#!L|$
"L||,,44Dv (4)
$L|
e$0||(#(#$(#(#where:` `
e0&`
xXtr is the depression angle relative to horizontal from the transmitter to the receiver in
radians(#
e(`
Xht is the elevation of the transmit antenna center of radiation above mean sea level inX(0*0*0* (3L$|(%8X
meters(#
e`
Xhr is the elevation of the receive antenna center of radiation above mean sea level in
meters(#
e`Xdr is the great circle distance from the transmitter to the receiver in meters(#
e0Xa is the effective earth radius in meters taking into account atmospheric refractivity (#
xThe atmospheric refractivity is usually called the K factor. A typical value of K is 1.333, and
e&0
xusing the actual earth radius of 6340 kilometers, a equals 8451 kilometers, or 8,451,000 meters.
For the purpose of these Rules, K = 1.333 shall be used.
xLUsing an equation of the same form, the depression angle from the transmitter to any terrain
elevation point can be found as:
a04fdddddddd0.ldd)>dOital sub {t-p} = {{h sub p - h sub t}over d sub p} - {d sub p over {2 a }}XP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPtph@tphcttZvd6pHdtpva;9D%D:v2a
$(#(# (#(#"L $
"L a
a
OiiqqI{! ! (5)
$L
(#(#v(#(#where:
e`
Xtp is the depression angle relative to horizontal for the ray between the transmitter and
the point on the terrain profile(#
e`Xhp is the elevation of the terrain point above mean sea level in meters(#
e`
Xdp is the great circle path distance from the transmitter to the point on the terrain path in
meters(#
e`Xht and a are as defined above following Equation (4).(#
eM`
x\The variable tp is calculated at every point along the path between the transmitter and the
e6`
xreceiver and compared to tr. If the condition tp > tr is true at any point, then the path is
x0considered NLOS and the model formulations in the subsection on NonLineofSight (NLOS)
e `
x|Mode below are used. If tp tr is true at every point, then the transmitterreceiver path is
LOS and the formulations in this subsection apply.
xFor LOS paths, the field strength at the receiver is calculated as the vector combination of a
x,directly received ray and a single reflected ray. This calculation is presented next. If the
xgeometry is such that a terrain elevation point along the path between the transmitter and receiver
xextends into the 0.6 first Fresnel zone, then an additional loss ranging from 0 to 6dB is included
for partial Fresnel zone obstruction. This is discussed in a subsequent subsection.
p'<\7Heading 3# P7P#d#]\ P6Q-P#TwoRay Field Strength at the Receiver Using a Single Ground Reflection QHeading 3 X'0*0*0*(\3L 0fXԌ"
e0
x"#XP7
PT6Q=>XP#dFor an LOS path, the field at the receiver consists of the directly received ray from the
xtransmitter and a number of other rays received from a variety of reflecting and scattering
xsources. For low antenna heights (on either the transmit or receive end of the path) the field at
xthe receiver is dominated by the direct ray and a single reflected ray which intersects the ground
e0
xlnear the transmitter or receiver, whichever is nearer to the ground. The heightgain function in
xpwhich a field at the antenna increases as the height of the antenna above ground increases is a
x<direct result of the direct and ground reflection rays adding vectorially so that the magnitude of
x`the resultant manifests this effect. The heightgain function is modeled here by considering the
xxactual ground reflected ray and the direct ray in vector addition. The magnitude of the direct ray
is given by:
1dddddddd1dddddddd j=bdddddddddd)>
=EE sub r = 1 over d sub r sqrt {{P sub t G sub t }over {4 ! }}XP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPErnvd6rPtttG-ttGYDTS:SGRD1qv4Rv!j$(#(# (#(#!$ZZ
"ZZ
bbHz (6)
"
e`
x|(#(#(#(#where Er is the field strength at the receive point, PT is the transmitter power delivered to the
e`
x$terminals of the transmit antenna, GT is the transmit antenna gain in the direction of the receive
e0
xxpoint (or the ray departure direction), is the plane wave free space impedance (377 ohms), and
e`dr is the path distance from the transmitter to the receive point in kilometers.
Written in dB terms, this reduces to:
e0/9t6ddddddddR.dd)>p
9t,E sub r = 76.92-20.0 log (d sub r) + P sub TXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPvE6rvd6rsvP6TvvvAv76 v.;v92{v20Cv.uv0vlogv(v)/$(#(#LL(#(#!LL$ 1dddddddd1dddddddd
e0"LLdBV/mTT$V\\ (7)
"LL
e%`
x$LL(#(#%(#(#In Equation (7), PT is effective radiated power (ERPd) in dBW. The magnitude and phase of the
groundreflected ray are found by first calculating the complex reflection coefficient as follows:
>"dddddddd.dd)>
XR``=``R sub s ```gXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPvRavR6sUvgv>$(#(#
(#(#!L
$
"L
rr
<""nzz**6h22 (8)
$L
e!`
x`
(#(#!(#(#where Rs is the smooth surface reflection coefficient and g is the surface roughness attenuation
factor (a scalar quantity).
xFor parallel and perpendicular polarizations, respectively, the smooth surface reflection
coefficients are:
1dddddddd1dddddddd q! 4
ddddddddd)>@ 4
R sub {s } = { =sin sub 0 - {sqrt{ =-cos sup 2 sub 0}}} over {=sin sub 0 + {sqrt{ =-cos sup 2 sub 0}}} XP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPhR(s(hvv
/)P/)P==v=vv=v
sinn0~cosU2C0
vsinn60~vcos2C60q
e(0parallel polarization,hh^(9)(
0*0*0*L)
bLL
6pL)"
$
"b]!@ Ԍ
$(#(#]](#(#!!b]$ԙ 1dddddddd!1dddddddd HA4
]%ddddddddWdd)>
4
R sub {s Y } = {sin sub 0 - {sqrt{ = -cos sup 2 sub 0}}} over {sin sub 0 + {sqrt{ =-cos sup 2 sub 0}}} XP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPhR(s(Yh^^vv
/EP/EPsin0+cos6U20vsin60+vcos6260E=yvEv=yvH,]](#(#(#(#!!b]!A,
"!b]"Aperpendic"!b]"Aular
$!b]"Apolarizati
el0$(#(#l$A$on` ` (10)
(#(#
e`where 0 is the angle of incidence and = is the complex permittivity given by:
1ddddddddA1dddddddd a
g/dddddddz.dd)>
g(= = = sub 1 - j60 % sub 1 XP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPv=v=&v%vvvk6161&vj60ߛ$(#(# (#(#!aL$
"aLmmuuJ|% % (11)
$aL
e`
xl(#(#(#(#where =1 is the relative dielectric constant of the reflecting surface, %1 is the conductivity of the
e{0
xreflecting surface in Siemens/m, and is the (free space) wavelength of the incident radiation.
xFor the case of ground reflection, verical polarization is parallel polarization and horizontal
polarization is perpendicular polarization.
xxFor the model defined here, it is assumed that the local surface roughness is 0 (smooth surface)
e`
xso that the term g in Equation (8) is one. Also, values of %1 = 0.008 Siemens/meter and =1= 15
xare commonly used for ground constants and shall be employed unless specific values for the
location being studied are available.
xSince the lengths of the reflected path and the direct path are essentially the same (differing by
xponly a few wavelengths or less), the amplitude of the two rays due to spatial attenuation (path
xlength) is assumed to be the same. The reflected ray, however, is multiplied by the reflection
xcoefficient as given above and then shifted (retarded) in phase as a result of the longer path
length compared to the direct ray. The vector addition of the two rays at the receiver is thus:
1dddddddda1dddddddd
3#ddddddddc
.dd)>x
3LE sub r ` = ` E sub d ` sin( 3 t)+E sub d ` R ` sin ( 3 t+ C )XP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPvE6rmvE6dvtvE6dvR2vtvvjvDvsin.v(Fv)hvsinRv(
v)qv3v3v{ vCߒ$(#(#p(#(#!L$
"L
$L
(#(##(#(#where:
e4%`Ed is the magnitude of the direct ray
e&0 3 is the carrier frequency in radians
e(0 R is the complex reflection coefficient given above(0*0*0*)b]!@ d A]%
L/a/
L0#*'#xԌ
e0 C is the phase delay of reflected ray in radians
The carrier term is usually suppressed so that the magnitude of Equation (12) becomes
&0J ddddddddWdd)>
X <`E sub r ``~=~ E sub d````1 + R ``e sup{i( C sub r + C )}~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~#
~~~~~=~E sub d ` SQRT {(1+R ` ` cos ( varphi sub r + DELTA varphi ))^2+(R ` ` sin (varphi sub r + DELTA varphi))^2}XP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPqtvPErE)dRUeEiddxrvE6dvR6r
vR>
6r7Evvv"
vr
v1E(E)v((v1vcosv(Y v) v) 2
v(vsinmv(v)Tv)2ECEUECvC2vvCvC
vvC&$(#(#b##(#(#!#$
"#
"#{{
<++n!!!!!!(13)
$#
e&
`
x0##(#(#&
(#(#where Cr is the phase angle of the reflection coefficient. The term C is found from the actual
xpath length difference in meters. For a tworay path geometry over a curved earth, the path
length difference is given by:
04ddddddddldd)>H3h5 r = {2h sub t ```h sub r}over d sub r XP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPrhtthtrvd6rbD2k}h$(#(#
(#(#!L $
"L OO9kWW__3e(14)
$L
D
(#(#(#(#where:
e`h#|\ P6G;-P#'#Xj\ P6G;=>XP#t is the height of the transmit antenna above the reflecting plane in meters
eD`h#|\ P6G;-P#'#Xj\ P6G;=>XP#r is the height of the receive antenna above the reflecting plane in meters
D
so that
D
$0dddddddddd)>EgF C = ` {2 ! r}over ~~~ (modulo ~2 !~ radians)XP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPC]T!TF=!FrT2(2~){Tr)modulo radians$$(#(#(#(#!L$
D
"L[[Accs(15)
D
"L
xX(#(#(#(#The usual issue in using this approach is defining where the reflecting plane is for a complex
xterrain profile between transmitter and receiver. The reflection point is found by evaluating the
xLangle of incidence and reflection at every terrain elevation point along the path. The angle of
xincidence at any point along the path profile (the evaluation point) is found from simple geometry
as follows:
0r&ddddddddNdd)>3tA sub t ` ` = ` ` tan sup{-1}~ {[h sub t ` ` / ` ` d sub t]} XP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPv6tvh6tvd+6tvxvtan1cv[_v/Pv]t$(#(# (#(#!L$
"L
(#(#O$(#(#` ` ,hh^pp(16)
e&0#XP\ P6Q=>XP#for the transmitter, and
!0+ddddddddNdd)>3tA sub r ` ` = ` ` tan sup{-1}~ {[h sub r ` ` / ` ` d sub r]} XP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPv6rvh6rvdI6rvvtan1rv[}v/}v]t
$(#(#((#(#"!L$
,bb^jj&Xrr(17) (0*0*0*@)#D
J
Lj eH
L( L%(&L+u.!+ Ԍ
e`
x(#(#(#(#ԙfor the receiver. The terms ht, hr, dt, and dr are the transmit antenna height above the evaluation
xlpoint, the receive antenna height above the evaluation point, and the distances from the
e`
xevaluation pointto the transmitter and receiver, respectively. The evaluation point where t = ris
x|considered the reflection point. However, it is unlikely that these angles will ever be exactly
e`
x8equal. In such cases, at the two adjacent evaluation points where the angles inflect (i.e. r
e`
xLbecomes larger than t), the reflection point is considered to exist along the profile segment
xDdefined by the adjacent points. The exact reflection point is then found along this profile
xsegment using linear interpolation since the profile segment is by definition a linear slope. With
eH`
xthe distance and elevation of the reflection point established, the reflection angle of incidence 0
e1`
xis found using an equation of the form of Equation (16). This value of 0 is then used in
Equation (9) or (10) to find the magnitude and phase of the reflection coefficients.
xThe effect of the nearby ground reflection will be to reduce the amplitude of the directly received
xray because, in general, the two rays will add out of phase. The amplitude of the reflected ray
p<
xwill be nearly equal to the direct ray because, at low reflection angles of incidence, R#^\ P6Q-P#t#XP\ P6Q=>XP#1.0 for
xlmost practical combinations of frequency, conductivity, and permittivity. For an antenna placed
xvery near the ground, the cancellation calculated through use of these formulas will be almost
xdperfect, so that the directly received (free space) ray will be reduced by 40 dB or more. It is
xunlikely, however, that such a perfect cancellation will occur in the real world. It is therefore
xappropriate to put some reasonable limits on the change in amplitude of the directlyreceived ray
xthat can be caused by a reflection. Based on measurement and theoretical data, the limits placed
on change in the free space amplitude due to reflections are 25 dB and + 6 dB.
e`
x<Thus based on the preceding discussion, the path loss or attenuation term Areflection can be written
as:
XA0PddddddddWLdd)><ital A sub reflection `` = `` -20 ` log````1 + R ` TIMES `e sup{i( C sub r + C)}``~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~#
~~~~~~~~ = ` ` -20`log`` sqrt{{(1+R ` cos( C sub r + C ))sup 2 + (R ` sin( C sub r + C ))sup 2}}XP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXP%A
reflectionR)eEiddL rvR 6rN
vR6rr's Ev{vv+
vvv20log/1E(
E)v20vloglv(v1vcos& v(v)
v)P2
v(
vsinv(lv)v)2
lPEC E)
ECi vC
v<vCvCEvvCX
$(#(#@~~(#(#"A~$
"A~= (18)
"A~
eS`~~(#(#S(#(#with the limits that 6.0 dB Areflection 25.0 dB.
p<\7Heading 3# P7P#d#]\ P6Q-P#Attenuation Due to Partial Obstruction of the Fresnel Zone v4QHeading 3
"
er 0
x"#XP7
PT6Q=>XP#dWhen a path is LOS but terrain obstacles are close to obstructing the path, additional attenuation
xwill occur which cannot be accounted for using the ray approach just discussed. The failure of
xthe ray approach to account for attenuation due to a near miss of obstacles on the path can be
xlovercome to some extent by including a loss term in the LOS formulation which is based on the
x<extent to which an obstacle penetrates the first Fresnel zone. From diffraction theory, when the
xray just grazes an obstacle, the field on the other side is reduced by 6 dB (half the wavefront is
xobstructed). When the clearance between the obstacle and the ray path is 0.6 of the first Fresnel
xzone, the change in the field strength at the receiver is 0 dB, and with additional clearance a field
xstrength increase of 6 dB can occur owing to the inphase contribution from the ray diffracted
from the obstacle. For additional clearance, an oscillatory pattern in the field strength occurs.X(0*0*0*|)3~J!APXԌ
x@In the model described, if the ray path clears intervening obstacles by at least 0.6 of the first
xlFresnel zone, then no adjustment to the receiver field will occur. For the case when an obstacle
xextends into the 0.6 first Fresnel zone, a loss factor ranging from 0 to 6 dB is applied based on
xa linear proportion of how much of the 0.6 First Fresnel zone is penetrated. This Fresnel zone
path loss or attenuation term can be written as:
9a0D dddddddd C
|dd)>PkA sub Fresnel ` `=` ` 6.0` ` LEFT (1.0 - {{C sub obs `(d sub p`)} over {R sub {FR}` (d sub p`)}} RIGHT)~dBXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPAFresnelCtobsdtpvR6FRvd6pN dBX\6`.0b1.0R(V)>v(Bv)"[h"
j"i[o
qpD9$(#(#|''(#(#!aU'$
"aU'
"aU'//!S77(19)
"aU'
"aU'
''(#(#(#(#where:
"
e `
"XCobs(dp) is the height difference in meters between the ray path and the terrain elevation
eu
`at distance dp along the path(#
e&`XRFR(dp) is the 0.6 first Fresnel zone radius at distance dp along the path(#
e
`
x<The values Cobs(dp) and RFR(dp) are calculated taking into account the effective earth radius using
the K factor. The 0.6 first Fresnel zone radius is given by
,0!dddddddIdd)>R sub FR ``(d sub p `)`=`0.6``LEFT [ `549.367 `` sqrt {{ d sub p ``(d sub r ` - ` d sub p ` )} over {f d sub r}}`` right ]~~~metersXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPRFRdpBdtp\ d tr
dtp vf vd'
6r
metersc(g)N0.6549.367 (])
tvtxt[xt
xtw}[
~"kTkSk[Sk
SkR@-D,$(#(#q$$(#(#!L$$
"L$
"L$||',,Y(20)
"L$
"L$
$L$
e0$$(#(#(#(#where f is the frequency in MHz and all distances are in kilometers.
xThe use of the partial Fresnel zone obstruction loss from 0 dB at 0.6 clearance to 6 dB at grazing
xHalso provides a smooth transition into the NLOS mode in which knifeedge diffraction loss just
xbelow grazing will start at 6 dB and increase for steeper ray bending angles to receiving locations
xdin the shadowed region. Note that this attenuation factor is found only for the terrain profile
xpoint that extends farthest into the 0.6 first Fresnel zone, not for every profile point which
extends into the 0.6 first Fresnel zone.
pp<7Heading 3# P7P##]\ P6Q-P#dSummary of Calculation of Field Strength at the Receiver Under LOS Conditionsd !LQHeading 3
eB0
x#XP7
PT6Q=>XP#All of the formulations for computing the field strength at the receiver under LOS conditions are
now in place. They can be summarized with the following simple equation:
0&ddddddd.dd)> XkE sub r `=`` 76.92``-``20`log``(d sub r``)`+``P sub T ` - ` A sub reflection ` - A sub Fresnel~~~~dB mu V/mXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPvE6rbvd6r'vP6T vA
6
reflectionvA
6FresnelvdBuvV'vmvqvv v&vv76Kv.}v92v20vlogv(*v)v/v$(#(#!(#(#!L$
"L@YYr(21)
"L
"
ed$`
x"(#(#d$(#(#where Areflection is the change due the reflection in dB from Equation (18), and A Fresnel is the partial
eM%`
xFresnel zone obstruction loss from Equation (19). The term PT is the effective radiated power
e6&`(ERPd) in dBW in the direction of the receiver.
xIn terms of path loss between two antennas with gains of 0 dBi in the path direction, Equation
(21) can be written as:(0*0*0**U= 'H
a PL!$j!L&(& Ԍ
e00n%dddddddd.dd)>ZcXfL sub LOS `` = `` 32.45 `` + `` 20.0`log`f`+`20`log`d sub r`+`A sub reflection ` +` A sub Fresnel~~~dBXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPvL6LOScvf3
vd
6rsvA6
reflectionvA6FresnelvdBv5vv
vvGv32v.Av45v20v.v0Mvlog?v20 vlogc$(#(#(#(#!L$!E
x~^method01.wpg
,C
Y0Mt ! Geometry for computing vă!L
"L=11o(22)
"L
$L
e`<(#(#`(#(#mHeading 2#Xj\ P6G;=>XP#NonLineofSight (NLOS) Mode YwHeading 2
e0
x#XP7
PT6Q=>XP#The mechanism for deciding when to use the LOS mode and when to use the NLOS mode is
xddescribed at the beginning of the subsection on LineofSight Mode above. When the model
x8elects to use the NLOS formulations to follow, it means that one or more terrain or other features
xobstructs the ray path directly from the transmitter to the receiver. In this case, the free space
xfield strength is further reduced for the attenuation caused by the obstacles. For the model
x8defined here, the calculation of obstruction loss over an obstacle is done by assuming the obstacle
xis a perfect electrical conductor rounded obstacle with a height equal to the elevation of the
xHobstruction and a radius equal to 1 meter. Diffraction loss in this model is calculated assuming
xTindividual obstacles on the path can be modeled as isolated rounded obstacles. The losses from
multiple isolated obstacles are then combined.
p<\7Heading 3# P7P#d#]\ P6Q-P#Diffraction Loss ,_QHeading 3
"
ea0
xp"#XP7
PT6Q=>XP#dThe loss over an individual rounded obstacle is primarily a function of the parameter v that is
eJ0
xrelated to the path clearance over the obstacle. The total diffraction loss, A(v,#), in dB, is the sum
e30
xLof three parts " A(v,0), A(0,#), and U(v,#). The equations to calculate the total and the three
parts are given below:
e0A(v,#) = A(v,0) + A(0,#) + U(v,#)pp& Xxx(23)
e~0A(v,0) = 6.02 + 9.0v + 1.65v2 for 0.8 v 0& Xxx (24)
e/0Figure 1!!Figure 1A(v,0) = 6.02 + 9.11v + 1.27v2 for 0 v 2.4pp& Xxx(25)
e` A(v,0) = 12.593 + 20log10 (v) for v > 2.4pp& Xxx (26)
e0A(v,0) = 6.02 + 5.556# + 3.148#2 + 0.256#3pp& Xxx (27)
eB0U(v,#) = 11.45v# + 2.19(v#)2 0.206(v#)3 ĩ 6.02 for v# 3 Xxx (28)
e0U(v,#) = 13.47v# + 1.058(v#)2 0.048(v#)3 ĩ 6.02 for 3 < v# 5xx (29)
e 0U(v,#) = 20v# 18.2 for v > 5pp& Xxx (30)
where the curvature factor is
0l
UR(dddddddd dd)>X N
ZNXP# =`0.676``R sup {0.333} ` f sup {-0.1667}``sqrt{{d over {d sub 1``d sub 2}}}XP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXP#;c$0.676c0c.
c333c0c.c1667b615 62Rfdvdvdn'T'[S'
S'RDN$(#(#-#(#(#!L$
"L
"L}//77Ew(31)
"L
"L
"
ee'0
xX"(#(#e'(#(#The obstacle radius R is in kilometers, and the frequency f is in MHz. The distance term d is
eN(`
xthe path length from the transmitter (or preceding obstacle) to the receiver (or next obstacle), d1
e7)`
xis the distance from the transmitter (or preceding obstacle) to the obstacle, and d2 is the distance7)0*0*0*l*L~%'#-!xL'
,R(X
xb$(#(#(#(#b!'#$from the obstacle to the receiver (or next obstacle). When the radius is zero, the obstacle is a
eK0knife edge, and A(v,#) = A(v,0).
e0
xThe parameter v in the equations above takes into account the geometry of the path and can be
thought of as the bending angle of the radio path over the obstacle. It is computed as:
f0)Udddddddd
add)> )
RMital v ` ` = ` ` SQRT {{2 d ` ` tan ( alpha ) ` ` tan ( beta )}over lambda }XP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPv{Td@T@[S@
S@Rg T2TtanT(T)6Ttan+T(T)CTnThFf$(#(#<
<
(#(#!L<
$
"L<
"L<
L~DDLLFx(32)
"L<
"L<
"
e0
x"<
<
(#(#(#(#where d is the path length from the transmitter (or preceding obstacle) to the receiver (or next
e0
x@obstacle), is the angle relative to a line from the transmitter (or preceding obstacle) to the
e0
x,receiver (or next obstacle), and is the angle relative to a line from the receiver (or next
e0
xLobstacle) to the transmitter (or preceding obstacle). The definitions of and are shown in
xFigure 1. For the multiple obstacle case, obstacles are treated successively as transmitter
e[0
x$obstaclereceiver triads to construct the path geometry and bending angle v over each obstacle.
eD0
x4The value of v is then used to calculate the diffraction loss over each obstacle. The resulting
obstacle losses are summed to arrive at the total obstacle diffraction loss for the path.- 0*0*0*@ e'#-!xLP<
l
p<\7Heading 3# P7P##]\ P6Q-P#dSummary of Calculation of Field Strength at the Receiver Under NLOS Conditions 5yQHeading 3
e0#XP7
PT6Q=>XP#dThe field strength at the receiver in the NLOS mode can then be written as:
!0Z
dddddddd5.dd)>(
IXME sub r``=`` 1`04.77`-`20`log`(d sub r)`+`P sub T`-`A sub diff~~~dB V/mXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPvE6rvd6r3vP6T vA
6diffvdB9
vV
vmvvv vv1v04v.
v77yv20Wvlogmv(Lv)
v/vI$(#(#bb(#(#!!Ab$
"!Ab,jj^!!(33)
"!Ab
$!Ab
xbb(#(#0(#(#where all the terms have the same definitions as given in the preceding subsection and the term
e `Adiff is defined as:
<A0\zdddddd
dd)>
\Gital A sub diff = SUM FROM {n = 1} TO {n sub obs} {A sub n (v,rho)~~dB}XP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPAdiff
nddobs6nAPnvdBG6IU61(/,)a#<$(#(#
(#(#!A$
"A
"A@SSr[[:lcc!!(34)
"A
e`(#(#(#(#where A(v,#) is defined in Equation (23) and nobs is the number of obstructions in the path.
xhThe corresponding path loss between antennas with 0 dBi gain in the path direction can be
written as:aAddddddddhQ.dd)>
AXKL sub NLOS``=``32.45``+``20.0 log``f``+``20`log`d sub r``+``A sub diff~~~dBXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPXP7
PT6QXPvL6NLOSvf
vd 6r$vA6diff\vdBvv vvv32hv.v452v20v.,v0vlogv20 vlog߉
$(#(#u(#(#"ad$
"adccHz (35)
"ad
p<$adHeading 1#|\ P6G;-P# \Heading 1
e0(#(#(#(##XP7
PT6Q=>XP#
p
< #|\ P6G;-P#File Format#Xj\ P6G;=>XP#
xTo facilitate the exchange of data on twoway MDS and ITFS systems permissible under Parts
x21 and 74, a file format is herein described for the submission of requisite technical data to be
xprovided to the Commission's copy contractor and to all parties which must be served with notice
xof the applications and/or engineering studies. The media and basic formatting of that media are
defined by ISO/EIC Standards 9293.5 95291.6 and 95292.7.
x@The remainder of this document outlines the format of technical information regarding each
xResponse Service Area (RSA) to be submitted with each MDS/ITFS twoway application. The
xdata shall appear in a number of sections for the purpose of grouping similar items within the%0*0*0*L&A br5!
(
z9Az
dha
e0
x0file. Data shall be coded in an ASCIIformatted,9v
nZy$
x#X\ P6G;
P#э ANSI X3.41986 (R1992), Coded Character Set " 7Bit American National Standard Code for Information
nZA$Interchange#
XN\ P"?XP#9 commadelimited file. Carriage return (0Dh)
x(and line feed (0Ah) characters shall be placed at the end of each line in the file, as is normal
xwhen using standard text editors. To help in identifying data, where file sections are formatted
xas tables, the first entry in each row within a table shall be a sequence number indicating the
xtposition of the row within the table. To the extent possible, the sequence number shall be
xrepresentative of the type of data contained on the row, such as the number of degrees of azimuth
xor elevation.A generic example of the required file construction appears at the end of this section
xand may be used as a template for the submission of data. As shown there, section titles shall
xappear on a separate line in square brackets [ ] and shall be separated from the preceding
xdsections and from the data within their own sections by a blank line. Headers shall appear on
xthe top line of the data contained within a section. Headers may contain data and may also help
with both human and machine readability.
Units of measure that are to be utilized for all information supplied in the file are:
Latitude ! Degrees, Minutes, Seconds (DD,MM,SS)
Longitude ! Degrees, Minutes, Seconds (DDD,MM,SS)
Azimuth or Bearing ! Degrees (to 1 decimal place)
Radius ! Miles (to 2 decimal places)
Ground Elevation ! Feet AMSL (to 0 decimal places)
Antenna Height ! Feet AGL (to 2 decimal places)
Electrical Antenna Tilt ! Degrees (to 1 decimal place)
Mechanical Antenna Tilt ! Degrees (to 1 decimal place)
Azimuth of Mechanical Antenna Tilt ! Degrees (to 1 decimal place)
Power (EIRP) ! dBW (to 2 decimal places)
Antenna Gain ! dBi (to 2 decimal places)
e!01. General Information
eb#0Section Title:` ` General Info
e%0Entries:` ` File Number (Assigned by Commission)"% 0*0*0*$"Ԍ
` ` Licensee name
` ` City/State of hub location
` ` Coordinates of hub location
` ` Ground Elevation of hub location (feet)
` ` Call sign/file number of station being modified (if applicable)
` ` City/State of station being modified
e&
02. Geographic Boundary Definitions ! Circular Areas Only
e0Section Title:` ` Circular Geographic Areas
e
0
p|Section Header:RSA Circular (0 or 1), Regions Circular (00 or RR, where RR = total # of
circular regions)(#
p ` ` Entries:00, RSA Center Latitude, RSA Center Longitude, RSA Radius
(omit entries other than leading 00 if RSA is noncircular)(#
p` ` 01, Region 01 Center Latitude, Region 01 Center Longitude, Region 01
Radius(#
p` ` 02, Region 02 Center Latitude, Region 02 Center Longitude, Region 02
Radius(#
e0` ` ,hh^:
e0` ` ,hh^:
p` ` RR, Region RR Center Latitude, Region RR Center Longitude, Region RR
Radius(#
xThe geographic area of an RSA or region may be described by a circle having a defined center
point location and a radius. If the RSA is circular, then RSACircular= 1, otherwise 0.
xIf there are circular regions, then Regions Circular = the number of such regions, RR. Otherwise,
Regions Circular = 00.
e #03.Geographic Boundary Definitions ! NonCircular Areas
e$0Section Title:` ` NonCircular Areas
e&0
p(Section Header:RSA NonCircular (0 or 1), Regions NonCircular (00 or NN, where NN
p= total # of noncircular regions), # of points defining RSA (XXX), # of
ppoints defining region RR+1 (AAA), 8, # of points defining region
RR+NN (ZZZ)(#"=)0*0*0*("Ԍ
e0
pDEntries:` ` RSA Latitude (001), RSA Longitude (001), Region 01 Latitude (001),
pRegion 01 Longitude (001), 8, Region NN Latitude (001), Region NN
Longitude (001)(#
pD` ` RSA Latitude (002), RSA Longitude (002), Region 01 Latitude (002),
pRegion 01 Longitude (002), 8, Region NN Latitude (002), Region NN
Longitude (002)(#
e0` ` ,hh^:
e0` ` ,hh^:
pd` ` RSA Latitude (XXX), RSA Longitude (XXX), Region 01 Latitude (AAA),
p(Region 01 Longitude (AAA), 8, Region NN Latitude (ZZZ), Region NN
Longitude (ZZZ)(#
xThe geographic descriptions of an RSA in the sections for Circular Areas Only (Section 2) and
xfor NonCircular Areas are mutually exclusive. One of them shall have the RSA indicator set
xto 1; the other shall be set to 0. Any RSA data contained in the section with the RSA indicator
set to 0 shall be ignored.
xRegions of both types, i.e., circular and noncircular, are permitted within a single RSA. Regions
xDin this noncircular section shall be numbered sequentially continuing from the last region number
xDin the circular section, i.e., from RR+1 to RR+NN, so that all regions have unique region
numbers.
e04.Hub Sectorization Data
et0Section Title:` ` Sectorization
e%0Section Header:# of sectors within RSA (SS)
e0
pEntries:` ` Sector 01, Hub Receive Antenna Pattern #, Gain, Azimuth of Main Lobe
por Azimuth of Symmetry, Height AGL, Electrical Beam Tilt, Mechanical
pXBeam Tilt, Azimuth of Mechanical Beam Tilt, Polarization, Max
Simultaneous Transmitters (#
p` ` Sector 02, Hub Receive Antenna Pattern #, Gain, Azimuth of Main Lobe
por Azimuth of Symmetry, Height AGL, Electrical Beam Tilt, Mechanical
pXBeam Tilt, Azimuth of Mechanical Beam Tilt, Polarization, Max
Simultaneous Transmitters(#
e$0` ` ,hh^:
e_&0` ` ,hh^:
pD` ` Sector (SS), Hub Receive Antenna Pattern #, Gain, Azimuth of Main
pLobe or Azimuth of Symmetry, Height AGL, Electrical Beam Tilt,"(0*0*0*("
pMechanical Beam Tilt, Azimuth of Mechanical Beam Tilt, Polarization,
Max Simultaneous Transmitters(#
xpEach sector is to be assigned a number beginning with the sector whose main lobe azimuth is
xpointing due north or the closest to due north when proceeding in a clockwise direction from true
north.
xxThe receiving antenna pattern used in each sector is defined in the Antenna Pattern Data section,
xand the association of each sector with a specific antenna pattern is made here. This pattern shall
be used in the calculation of potential interference to a hub from surrounding stations.
The geographic definition of each sector is found in the Sector Geographic Definitions section.
xMechanical beam tilt for each hub receiving antenna is specified in this section. Tilting the
antenna downward is defined using a positive number.
The polarization of each sector is defined as either horizontal or vertical.
x(The maximum number of transmitters that can operate simultaneously on the channel or any
subchannel within each sector is specified in this section.
e605.Grid Point Definitions
e0Section Title:` ` Grid Points
e0Table Header:# of grid points (MMMM)
eI0
pEntries:` ` Point 0001: Latitude, Longitude, Elevation, Region # in which Located,
pBearing to Hub, Polarization (H, V, or B), Number of associated Class(es)
of Station(s), Class Designators(#
p` ` Point 0002: Latitude, Longitude, Elevation, Region # in which Located,
ppBearing to Hub, Polarization (H,V, or B), Number of associated Class(es)
of Station(s), Class Designators(#
eO0` ` ,hh^:
e 0` ` ,hh^:
p` ` Point MMMM: Latitude, Longitude, Elevation, Region # in which Located,
ppBearing to Hub, Polarization (H,V, or B), Number of associated Class(es)
of Station(s), Class Designators(#
x The header specifies the total number of grid points (MMMM) defined in the Grid Point
Definition Table.
xThe location of each grid point is defined by latitude and longitude. The bearing from the grid
xTpoint to the hub is specified. The region in which the grid point is located is indicated using the"(0*0*0*\("
xregion number assigned in the sections above giving geographic boundary definitions. Grid
xpoints not located in specifically defined regions shall be indicated as being in Region 00, which
describes the remainder of the RSA.
xPolarization for each grid point must be specified as horizontal (H), vertical (V), or both (B).
xIn areas where sectors having opposite polarizations overlap, it may be desirable to have the
xflexibility to utilize both polarizations. If so, grid points in these overlapping areas must be
specified as B, both polarizations.
xEach grid point must be assigned at least one class of station. Assignment of multiple classes
to a single grid point is also permitted.
e
06. Sector Geographic Definitions
e:0Section Title:` ` Sector Definitions
e
0Table Header:# of sectors (SS), Bearings or Coordinates (B or C)
e0Entries:` ` Sector 01, Start Bearing, Stop Bearing(#
e0(Bearings)` ` Sector 02, Start Bearing, Stop Bearing
e0` ` ,hh^:
e0` ` Sector SS, Start Bearing, Stop Bearing
ex0` ` ,hh^OR
ea0
pTable Header:# of sectors (SS), Bearings or Coordinates (B or C), # of Coordinates in
pdsector 01 (CC1), # of Coordinates in Sector 02 (CC2), 8, # of
Coordinates in sector SS (CCC) (#
e0
p@Entries:` ` Sector 01 Latitude (001), Sector 01 Longitude (001), Sector 02 Latitude
p(001), Sector 02 Longitude (001), 8, Sector SS Latitude (001), Longitude
Sector SS (001)(#
p@` ` Sector 01 Latitude (002), Sector 01 Longitude (002), Sector 02 Latitude
p(002), Sector 02 Longitude (002), 8, Sector SS Latitude (002), Sector SS
Longitude (002)(#
ed0` ` ,hh^:
eM0` ` ,hh^:
p` ` Sector 01 Latitude (CC1), Sector 01 Longitude (CC1), Sector 02 Latitude
pp(CC2), Sector 02 Longitude (CC2), 8, Sector SS Latitude (CCC), Sector
SS Longitude (CCC)(#
x\Sector geographic boundaries can be described in either of two ways: (1) as straight lines
x<radiating out from the hub location at the specified bearings until they cross the outer boundary
xDof the RSA, or (2) as sets of coordinates between which straight boundary lines exist that
xdescribe closed geographic areas. In either case, sectors may overlap, and, when they do, grid
x4points in the overlap areas must be analyzed as though they were included exclusively within
x@each sector. When sets of coordinates are used, the last coordinate pair shall be assumed to
connect to the first such pair.
"9)0*0*0*("Ԍ
e07.Response Station Class Data
e0Section Title:` ` Class Info
e0Table Header:# of classes (CL)
ev0
pEntries:` ` Class 1, Worst Case Ant Pattern #, Max Height, Max Power, Number
pof Regions in Which Used, Region(s) in Which Used, Maximum
Simultaneous Number within Each Region(#
p4` ` Class 2, Worst Case Ant Pattern #, Max Height, Max Power, Region(s)
in Which Used, Maximum Simultaneous Number within Each Region(#
e
0` ` ,hh^:
` ` ,hh^:
e0
p` ` Class CL, Worst Case Ant Pattern #, Max Height, Max Power, Region(s)
in Which Used, Maximum Simultaneous Number within Each Region(#
xClasses are defined by the combination of the worst case antenna pattern, the maximum height
xabove ground level (AGL) at which the antennas may be mounted, and the maximum power
(EIRP) they may emit.
xAssociated with each class description is one or more pairs of values indicating the region
xnumbers in which the class is used and the maximum number of transmitters that may transmit
xsimultaneously on the channel or on each subchannel within each region. The two types of
xvalues alternate, and one pair is present for each region in which the particular class is used. The
regions shall be listed in ascending numerical order.
e08.Antenna Pattern Data (Hub Receive and Worst Case Response Transmit) 1
Y|0X` hp x (#%'0*,.8135@8:XP#Section Title:` ` Antenna Patterns
e70
pDTable Header:# hub antenna patterns (HP), # of worst case response station transmit
antenna patterns (RP)(#
e0
pEntries:` ` 000, Hub (1) Plane Azimuth, Hub (1) Cross Azimuth, Hub (1) Plane
p(Elevation, Hub 1 Cross Elevation, Hub (2) Plane Azimuth, Hub (2) Cross
ppAzimuth, Hub (2) Plane Elevation, Hub (2) Cross Elevation, 8, Hub (HP)
pXPlane Azimuth, Hub (HP) Cross Azimuth, Hub (HP) Plane Elevation, Hub
p(HP) Cross Elevation, Response (1) Plane Azimuth, Response (1) Cross
pAzimuth, Response (2) Plane Azimuth, Response (2) Cross Azimuth, 8,
Response (RP) Plane Azimuth, Response (RP) Cross Azimuth(#
` ` (#
p` ` 001, Hub (1) Plane Azimuth, Hub (1) Cross Azimuth, Hub (1) Plane
pElevation, Hub (1) Cross Elevation, Hub (2) Plane Azimuth, Hub (2) Cross
ppAzimuth, Hub (2) Plane Elevation, Hub (2) Cross Elevation, 8, Hub (HP)
pXPlane Azimuth, Hub (HP) Cross Azimuth, Hub (HP) Plane Elevation, Hub"(0*0*0*("
p(HP) Cross Elevation, Response (1) Plane Azimuth, Response (1) Cross
pAzimuth, Response (2) Plane Azimuth, Response (2) Cross Azimuth, 8,
Response (RP) Plane Azimuth, Response (RP) Cross Azimuth(#
e0` ` ,hh^:
e0` ` ,hh^:
p` ` 359, Hub (1) Plane Azimuth, Hub (1) Cross Azimuth, Hub (1) Plane
pElevation, Hub (1) Cross Elevation, Hub (2) Plane Azimuth, Hub (2) Cross
ppAzimuth, Hub (2) Plane Elevation, Hub (2) Cross Elevation, 8, Hub (HP)
pXPlane Azimuth, Hub (HP) Cross Azimuth, Hub (HP) Plane Elevation, Hub
p(HP) Cross Elevation, Response (1) Plane Azimuth, Response (1) Cross
pAzimuth, Response (2) Plane Azimuth, Response (2) Cross Azimuth, 8,
Response (RP) Plane Azimuth, Response (RP) Cross Azimuth(#
LX` hp x (#%'0*,.8135@8:XP#Example File & Template PwHeading 2
e80
L#XP7
PT6Q=>XP#In the example file and template below, formatting elements and descriptive terms to be
e!<
Lincluded in the submitted file exactly as shown are in #Xw6X@DQKX@#plain text#XP\ P6Q=>XP#. Those items to be
Lreplaced by real data and shown here as place holders for purposes of example are shown in
?<#Xx6X@u{X@#italicized text and CAPITAL LETTERS.
r5k0t#d6X@w@#[General Info]
r50tFile FILE NUMBER
r50tLicensee LICENSEE NAME
r5d0tHub Lat DDMMSS, Hub Lon DDDMMSS
r50tHub City CITY, ST
r5
0tElevation AMSL FEET
r5] 0tCall CALL SIGN
r5!0tStn City CITY, ST
t
[Circular Geographic Areas]
r5V$0tRSA 0/1, Regions 00/RR
r5%0t00,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,MI.MM
r5&0t01,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,MI.MM
r5O(0t02,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,MI.MM"O(0*0*0*)t"Ԍ
t
:: :::::: ::::::: ::::::
t
:: :::::: ::::::: ::::::
r50tRR,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,MI.MM
t
[NonCircular Areas]
r5L0tRSA 0/1, Regions 00/NN
r50t00,XXX,RR+1,AAA,RR+2,BBB,...,RR+NN,ZZZ
r50t001,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,...,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS
r5E 0t002,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,...,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS
t
:::,
t
:::,
r5>
0tZZZ,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,...,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS
t
[Sectorization]
r50tSectors SS
t
Sector, Hub Pat, Gain, Az, AGL, Tilt, Pol, Max # Trans
r50t01,HP,dB.dB,DDD.DD,FFFF,DD.D,H/V,TTTT
r50t02,HP,dB.dB,DDD.DD,FFFF,DD.D,H/V,TTTT
r500t03,HP,dB.dB,DDD.DD,FFFF,DD.D,H/V,TTTT
t
:: :: :: :: ::: :::: :: : : : ::::
t
:: :: :: :: ::: :::: :: : : : ::::
r5)0tSS,HP,dB.dB,DDD.DD,FFFF,DD.D,H/V,TTTT
t
[Grid Points]
t
Points MMMM
t
Pnt, Lat, Lon, Elev, Regn, Bearing, Pol, # Classes, Class Designators...
r5u0t0001,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,FFFF,R#,DDD.DD,H/V/B,###,CC1,CC2,CC3,...CC###
r50t0002,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,FFFF,R#,DDD.DD,H/V/B,###,CC1,CC2,CC3,...CC###
r5!0t0003,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,FFFF,R#,DDD.DD,H/V/B,###,CC1,CC2,CC3,...CC###
t
:::: :::::: ::::::: :: :: :::: : : : ::: ::: ::: ::: :::
t
:::: :::::: ::::::: :: :: :::: : : : ::: ::: ::: ::: :::
r5%0tMMMM,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,FFFF,R#,DDD.DD,H/V/B,###,CC1,CC2,CC3,...CC###
t
[Sector Definitions]
r5'0tSectors SS, Type B
t
01,DD.DD,DD.DD"
)0*0*0*-t"Ԍ
t
02,DD.DD,DD.DD
t
03,DD.DD,DD.DD
t
:: :: :: :: ::
t
:: :: :: :: ::
t
SS,DD.DD,DD.DD
X0#XN\ Px?XP#OR#d6X@y@#
r540tSectors SS, Type C,01,CC1,02,CC2,03,CC3,...SS,CCC
r5 0t001,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,...DDMMSS,DDDMMSS
r5
0t002,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,...DDMMSS,DDDMMSS
r5-0t003,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,...DDMMSS,DDDMMSS
t
::: :::::: ::::::: :::::: ::::::: :::::: ::::::: :::::: :::::::
t
::: :::::: ::::::: :::::: ::::::: :::::: ::::::: :::::: :::::::
r5&0tCCC,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,DDMMSS,DDDMMSS,...DDMMSS,DDDMMSS
t
[Class Info]
r50tClasses CL
t
Class, Pattern, AGL, Max EIRP, # Reg, Reg, Max # Tx
r5r0t01,PAT,HHH,dB.dB,##,R1,##R1,R2,##R2,...RG,##RG
r50t02,PAT,HHH,dB.dB,##,R1,##R1,R2,##R2,...RG,##RG
r50t03,PAT,HHH,dB.dB,##,R1,##R1,R2,##R2,...RG,##RG
t
:: ::: ::: :: :: :: :: :::: :: :::: :: ::::
t
:: ::: ::: :: :: :: :: :::: :: :::: :: ::::
r50tCL,PAT,HHH,dB.dB,##,R1,##R1,R2,##R2,...RG,##RG
t
[Antenna Patterns]
r50tHub HP, Response RP
r5
0Deg,H01PA,H01CA,H01PE,H01CE,H02PA,H02CA,H02PE,H02CE,...HHPPA,HHPCA,HHPPE,HHPCE,R01PA,R01CA,R01PE,R01CE,R02PA,R02CA,R02PE,R02CE,...RRPPA,RRPCA,RRPPE,RR
r5X!0tPCE
r5"0000,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,...dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,...dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB
r5#0t.dB
r5L%0001,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,...dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,...dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB
r5&0t.dB
r5'0002,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,...dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,...dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB
r5;)0t.dB";)0*0*0*-t"Ԍ
L0::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ...::::: ::::: :::::
L0::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ...::::: ::::: :::::
t
:::::
L0::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ...::::: ::::: :::::
L0::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ...::::: ::::: :::::
t
:::::
r5B0358,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,...dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,...dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB
r50t.dB
r50359,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,...dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,...dB.dB,dB.dB,dB.dB,dB
r51 0t.dB
t
t
**